This article provides an overview of how VLAN traffic gets tagged on UniFi. If you are searching for how to configure VLANs on UniFi, please see our UniFi - Using VLANs with UniFi Wireless, Routing & Switching Hardware article.
Table of Contents
Tagging and Untagging Traffic
So, how does VLAN traffic get tagged on UniFi? In short, the UniFi access point (AP) tags packets when they go out from WLAN to wire. When tagged traffic comes in from the wire, it will untag it and forward it to WLAN. Take in consideration the following points:
- Traffic initiated from the AP is untagged and sent through br0 (or bond0 if link aggregation is enabled). This includes management traffic and RADIUS traffic, as described below:
- AP <-> Controller (management traffic)
- AP <-> RADIUS (when WPA-EAP is used)
- Traffic from WLAN without VLAN configured is untagged (the athX is bridged to br0).
- Traffic from WLAN with VLAN configured is always tagged (athX bridged to br0.VLAN to eth0.VLAN):
- AP <-> RADIUS (when WPA Enterprise is used)
- Station -> AP (tags) -> switch
- Station <- AP (untags) <- switch
Whether it's redirected (to the guest portal) doesn't matter. When WLAN is configured with VLAN, the traffic will be tagged when it leaves the AP. However, after traffic is tagged by the AP, it's up to you where it should be passed upstream.
Management network: 10.1.0.0/24
Guest VLAN network: 10.2.0.0/24
AP connected to port 5 (VLAN 1-untagged and VLAN 5-tagged)
Ubuntu connected to port 1 (VLAN 1-untagged and VLAN 5-tagged)
Controller connected to port 8 (VLAN 1-untagged)
Ubuntu (acting as a Router)
eth0: 10.1.0.2/24, routable to the Internet (gateway 10.1.0.1)
eth0.5: 10.2.0.1/24, NATed to eth0
Controller is at 10.1.0.26.
Guest Portals and VLANs
It's natural to think of a VLAN when guest access is mentioned since guests placed in their own VLAN, are isolated from other parts of the network. However, there are a few technical details worth mentioning talk about.
Let's start with the basic VLAN deployment where the guest portal is not enabled:
- UniFi AP tags WLAN->wire traffic.
- AP-controller is untagged.
- Controller is likely running on untagged interface.
- Configured inside the AP: guest --- br0.3 --- eth0.3 --3--+ br0 ------------------+--u,3---port1 corp -----+
So what would happen when the guest portal is enabled with VLAN? When the guest portal is enabled, the UniFi Controller acts as a portal server and the guests will be redirected to http://unifi_ip:unifi_http_portal_port/guest/. Some issues might arise, for example a guest is on VLAN 3, bridged to DMZ, and can't reach unifi_ip:unifi_http_portal_port. This issue could be addressed by adding rules to the router:
- Add a route for traffic from DMZ->unifi_ip
- Allow DMZ->unifi_ip:unifi_http_portal_port